JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist for Case Reports

Reviewer                                                                                             Date                                                                     

Author                                                                                                  Year                       Record Number                                    


Yes

No

Unclear

Not applicable

  1. Were patient’s demographic characteristics clearly described?

  1. Was the patient’s history clearly described and presented as a timeline?

  1. Was the current clinical condition of the patient on presentation clearly described?

  1. Were diagnostic tests or assessment methods and the results clearly described?

  1. Was the intervention(s) or treatment procedure(s) clearly described?

  1. Was the post-intervention clinical condition clearly described?

  1. Were adverse events (harms) or unanticipated events identified and described?

  1. Does the case report provide takeaway lessons?

Overall appraisal:             Include   □       Exclude   □       Seek further info  □

Comments (Including reason for exclusion)

                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                               



 

Explanation of case reports critical appraisal

How to cite: Moola S, Munn Z, Tufanaru C, Aromataris E, Sears K, Sfetcu R, Currie M, Lisy K, Qureshi R, Mattis P, Mu P. Chapter 7: Systematic reviews of etiology and risk. In: Aromataris E, Munn Z (Editors). JBI Manual for Evidence Synthesis. JBI, 2020. Available from https://synthesismanual.jbi.global. https://doi.org/10.46658/JBIMES-20-08


Case Reports Critical Appraisal Tool                

Answers: Yes, No, Unclear or Not/Applicable

1.       Were patient’s demographic characteristics clearly described?

Does the case report clearly describe patient's age, sex, race, medical history, diagnosis, prognosis, previous treatments, past and current diagnostic test results, and medications? The setting and context may also be described.

 2.       Was the patient’s history clearly described and presented as a timeline?

A good case report will clearly describe the history of the patient, their medical, family and psychosocial history including relevant genetic information, as well as relevant past interventions and their outcomes. (CARE Checklist 2013)

 3.       Was the current clinical condition of the patient on presentation clearly described?

The current clinical condition of the patient should be described in detail including the uniqueness of the condition/disease, symptoms, frequency and severity. The case report should also be able to present whether differential diagnoses was considered.

 4.       Were diagnostic tests or methods and the results clearly described?

A reader of the case report should be provided sufficient information to understand how the patient was assessed. It is important that all appropriate tests are ordered to confirm a diagnosis and therefore the case report should provide a clear description of various diagnostic tests used (whether a gold standard or alternative diagnostic tests). Photographs or illustrations of diagnostic procedures, radiographs, or treatment procedures are usually presented when appropriate to convey a clear message to readers.

5.       Was the intervention(s) or treatment procedure(s) clearly described?

It is important to clearly describe treatment or intervention procedures as other clinicians will be reading the paper and therefore may enable clear understanding of the treatment protocol. The report should describe the treatment/intervention protocol in detail; for e.g. in pharmacological management of dental anxiety - the type of drug, route of administration, drug dosage and frequency, and any side effects.

 6.       Was the post-intervention clinical condition clearly described?

A good case report should clearly describe the clinical condition post-intervention in terms of the presence or lack thereof symptoms. The outcomes of management/treatment when presented as images or figures would help in conveying the information to the reader/clinician.

 7.       Were adverse events (harms) or unanticipated events identified and described?

With any treatment/intervention/drug, there are bound to be some adverse events and in some cases, they may be severe. It is important that adverse events are clearly documented and described, particularly when a new or unique condition is being treated or when a new drug or treatment is used. In addition, unanticipated events, if any that may yield new or useful information should be identified and clearly described.

 8.       Does the case report provide takeaway lessons?

Case reports should summarize key lessons learned from a case in terms of the background of the condition/disease and clinical practice guidance for clinicians when presented with similar cases.



References:

Gagnier JJ, Kienle G, Altman DG, Moher D, Sox H, Riley D, CARE Group. The CARE Guidelines: Consensus‐Based Clinical Case Reporting Guideline Development. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 2013;53(10):1541-1547.





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