The search strategy for a scoping review should ideally aim to be as comprehensive as possible within the constraints of time and resources in order to identify both published and unpublished (gray or difficult to locate literature) primary sources of evidence, as well as reviews. Any limitations in terms of the breadth and comprehensiveness of the search strategy should be detailed and justified. As recommended in all JBI types of reviews, a three-step search strategy is to be utilized. Each step must be clearly stated in this section of the protocol. The first step is an initial limited search of at least two appropriate online databases relevant to the topic. The databases MEDLINE (PubMed or Ovid) and CINAHL would be appropriate for a scoping review on quality of life assessment tools. This initial search is then followed by an analysis of the text words contained in the title and abstract of retrieved papers, and of the index terms used to describe the articles. A second search using all identified keywords and index terms should then be undertaken across all included databases. Thirdly, the reference list of identified reports and articles should be searched for additional sources. This third stage may examine the reference lists of all identified sources or examine solely the reference lists of the sources that have been selected from full-text and/or included in the review. In any case, it should be clearly stated which group of sources will be examined. A statement should be included of the reviewers’ intent to contact authors of primary sources or reviews for further information, if this is relevant. A search for gray (i.e., difficult to locate or unpublished) material might be necessary, and guidance exists on these search strategies. Finally, a complete search strategy for at least one major database should be included as an appendix to the protocol. McGowan et al. (2016) developed an evidence-based guideline for Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies (PRESS) for systematic reviews, health technology assessments, and other evidence syntheses and recommended the main search to be done by a librarian and peer-reviewed by another librarian.

Reviewers should include the languages that will be considered for inclusion in the review as well as the timeframe, with an appropriate and clear justification for choices. Our strong recommendation is that there are no restrictions on source inclusion by language unless there are clear reasons for language restrictions (such as for feasibility reasons).

As the review question might be broad, authors may find that it is appropriate to search for all sources of evidence (e.g. primary studies and text/opinion articles) simultaneously with the one search strategy. This also depends on the relevance of the evidence sources to the topic under review and its objectives. This approach will lead to a greater sensitivity in the search, which is desirable for scoping reviews.

The search for a scoping review may be quite iterative as reviewers become more familiar with the evidence base, additional keywords and sources, and potentially useful search terms may be discovered and incorporated into the search strategy. If this is the case, it is of the utmost importance that the entire search strategy and results are transparent and auditable. The input of a research librarian or information scientist can be invaluable in designing and refining the search.





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